Soil Crusting and Sidewall Compaction

The mesocotyl can wrap around itself when emergence is curtailed.

Intense rainfall followed by warm and windy conditions tends to rapidly dry the surface of soils causing, in some cases, severe soil
crusting. When those conditions precede crop emergence, stand establishment can become compromised.

This condition is also common where sidewall compaction occurs at planting, or due to improper furrow closure. Young seedlings struggling to emerge experience the elongation of the mesocotyl as they work to penetrate the crust.

When emergence is curtailed, the mesocotyl can wrap around itself in a corkscrew fashion as it tries to find a way above ground as pictured.